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The Impact of Electric Vehicle Battery Charging on Distribution Transformers

Publication Type:

Conference Paper


The Applied Power Electronics Conference, IEEE, Fort Worth, TX (2011)


Smart-Grid; distribution transformer; EV charging; loss-of-life


Electric Vehicles (EV) and Plug-in Hybrid
Electric Vehicles (PHEV) have a limited share of the
current market. However, it is widely expected that the
situation will change in the near future and the penetration
of battery-operated vehicles will increase significantly.
This paper addresses the impact of the mass operation and
electricity consumption of EVs and PHEVs on the
distribution utility and more specifically on distribution
transformers. The charging effect of various types of EV
batteries on the life of distribution transformers is
analyzed. A typical annual base-load on the distribution
transformer is considered and compared with different
battery charging load scenarios. Simulation results show
that distributing the load profile of the battery charging
helps to decrease the distribution transformer loss of life.
In addition, power management of the EV and PHEV
battery charging and the interface with the Smart-Grid is